Spanish Colonial Art History and the Work of Empire (2022)

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Volume 1, Issue 3

July 2019

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Research Article| July 03 2019

Emmanuel Ortega

Emmanuel Ortega

University of Illinois at Chicago

(Video) Spanish Colonial Art

Emmanuel Ortega—is a curator, podcaster, and visiting professor at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Ortega has lectured nationally and internationally on images of autos-de-fé and nineteenth-century Mexican landscapes. He contributed the chapter “Hagiographical Misery and the Liminal Witness: Novohispanic Franciscan Martyr Portraits and the Politics of Imperial Expansion” to the edited volume Visualizing Sensuous Suffering and Affective Pain in Early Modern Europe and the Spanish Americas (Brill, 2018).

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Latin American and Latinx Visual Culture (2019) 1 (3): 83–86.

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Emmanuel Ortega; Spanish Colonial Art History and the Work of Empire. Latin American and Latinx Visual Culture 3 July 2019; 1 (3): 83–86. doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/lavc.2019.130006c

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During my first year as a PhD student at the University of New Mexico in 2007, I learned that the Mexican government was trying to eliminate colonial history from state-published educational books. Since the year 2000 the Secretaría de Educación Publica (SEP), aided by right-wing sectors of the political system, has been attempting to erase portions of Mexican history from elementary and secondary school curricula, and during the sexenio (six-year presidential term, from 2000 to 2006) of Vicente Fox, it aimed to exclude colonial history from public schools completely.1 In 2009 the SEP succeeded in deleting colonial history from first- and second-grade curricula. And in 2016, under the administration of Enrique Peña Nieto, the SEP attempted to jettison colonial history from elementary schools entirely with a campaign whose motto went, “Con la mirada fija en el futuro, sin voltear al pasado” (With eyes fixed on the future, without looking back to the past).2 At times, the only way teachers could include lessons on the history and arts of the colonial period was through sources available via private publishers.

The controversy over suppressing colonial history has divided conservative and liberal sectors of the government since the middle of the nineteenth century. The project of the nation, as constructed in the official visual culture of Mexico during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, located its glorious past in the history of the Aztec empire, and downplayed three hundred years of European control over the Americas. Consequently, everything from the founding legend of Tenochtitlan to the Aztec calendar became synonymous with mexicanidad. The transition from colonies to independent countries required a disassociation from European imperial legacies, and a reunification with the memory of local pre-Hispanic empires such as the Aztecs, the Maya, and the Inka (excluding smaller Native groups throughout the continent).3

Nationhood in Mexico, as in many other Latin American countries, has thus been measured by a sense of pride that ignores the episodes of history involving the Spanish empire. Outside the legacy of the Virgen de Guadalupe and Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz (female torch bearers of the constructed mestizo heritage of Mexicans), the history of the colonial period is dismissed in order to highlight a sentimentalized Aztec past, the fights for independence from Spain, and the Mexican Revolution of 1910. This sense of pride, rooted in a selective history and a failed attempt by twentieth-century art historians to equate colonial visual culture with the canon of European art, has put colonial art history in a particularly fragile state. Not only is it completely absent from any Mexican formative educational texts, but other than governmental promotion of towns with colonial built environments (better known as pueblos mágicos), colonial heritage is not part of the popular memory.

Instead of looking at the Spanish colonial period and its cultural production as a time where some of early modernity’s most cosmopolitan urban centers flourished, art historians have historically perceived Novohispanic art and the visual cultures of other viceroyalties as deficient copies of European art. This erroneous perspective, which to a certain extent persists in many art historical circles today, coupled with an imperialistic sense of nationhood, has prevented many Latinx students and future scholars from focusing on colonial Latin American art. The need remains for more students to critically reevaluate the unique character of Novohispanic art and its historical and cultural particularities. In other words, when raised Latinx either inside or outside of the United States, you will most likely grow up with a patriotic sense of history. But a national pride entrenched in nineteenth-century principles of nation building does not allow for a nuanced understanding of the colonial period. As a result, many Latinx students who dare to make Latin American art history the focus of their college education tend to concentrate on modern and contemporary art, and study issues of identity and nationhood outside the constraints of a colonial legacy. Perhaps this helps explain why Anglo scholars dominate the field of colonial Latin American art history in the United States. However, my experience of growing up in both Mexico and the United States has given me a distinctive outlook on nationhood and identity politics.

Soon after I was born in Los Angeles, my parents decided to raise me and my older sibling in their hometown of Ciudad Juárez, a decision for which I will always be thankful. Then when I was thirteen, my father, tired of crossing the border for construction work every morning, decided to move back to the States. His hard work and focus on manual labor nos inculcó valores (instilled values in us) that defined success beyond a college education. Nonetheless, my sister took the first step: like my father, she began to cross the border every morning to attend El Paso Community College. My first insight into the value of a college education came not from an intellectual desire to achieve a degree in the humanities, but out of the work ethic my family instilled in me of accomplishing goals through labor and sacrifice. By 1998 we were living in Las Vegas, a city not necessarily known as a college town, where many Latinx people prefer a well-paid career in the hotel service industry to a path in higher education.

During my second undergraduate year, I took an art history course by chance. A friend told me about some big-time art critic teaching in the art history department of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), and I decided to enroll. From my first survey course, I knew I wanted to be an art historian. My education in Las Vegas helped me appreciate the canon of European painting, which is a necessary step in understanding colonial Latin American visual culture. It was not until I traveled to the magnificent sanctuary of Atotonilco in the state of Guanajuato that I decided to make colonial art the focus of my graduate studies. But this was not an easy decision. As a first-generation college student and the first PhD on either side of my family, I knew it would affect my entire family financially. But I was determined to find out why I was so well versed in Michelangelo and Caravaggio and knew nothing about this so-called Sistine Chapel of the Americas.

Later as a master’s degree student, through the advising of the brilliant faculty at the University of New Mexico, I quickly understood what my standing would be if I decided to pursue colonial art history as a career: I would be an outsider both in Mexico and in the United States. And indeed, as a scholar practicing art history on both sides of the border, my capabilities have been often valued according to a minority status. In Mexico I am viewed as a gringo scholar, and in the United States, fellow faculty members and students alike often tokenize my role in the classroom.

Now, as a visiting professor, I still stand in a precarious place when it comes to my authority on my country’s visual culture. I battle with students’ expectations about the value of Mexican art beyond the well-known modernists; sometimes they dismiss my classes before even enrolling. This restrictive understanding of Latin American cultural production stems from the same patterns that affect these modern nations; from current governments’ perspectives, understanding the nuances of the colonial period and the way it directly affects contemporary power structures and hegemonic institutions does not make for a healthy nation. Furthermore, for many cultural reasons, art history is dominated by Anglo scholars (most humanities disciplines are). Although they have greatly enhanced our perspectives on the colonial period and its material and visual cultures, they may undermine the importance of having a Latinx scholar teaching this subject to Latinx students. Each semester always ends with notes from students who tell me how much they appreciate learning about their culture through the lens of a Latinx scholar. The challenges, however, neither start nor end in the classroom.

Given the economic insecurities faced by many families when they first migrate to the United States, I have noted a pattern of Latinx communities embracing higher education only by the second or third generation. Even when we decide to invest in a college career, we are often obligated to drop out early in order to prioritize job security and el bienestar de nuestras familias (the well-being of our families). Furthermore, the number of Latinx students admitted to universities with the budgets that allow for necessary field research and a free education is extremely low, creating yet another obstacle that does not permit for a vigorous community of Latinx academics to grow. When a lack of diversity exists in scholarly circles, the professional student body and workforce that feeds cultural institutions follows suit. The result is galleries and museum spaces that only celebrate Latinx culture via special events and exhibitions (which, given the lacunae in the field, in turn reinforce the sense that our identities are rooted only in Mesoamerican and modern artistic traditions). Year after year, Latinx audiences flock to local museums only when a retrospective of Frida Kahlo is in town, or for Día de los Muertos festivities. In other words, the present patterns of inclusion in cultural institutions around the country simply ratify the work of empire—that is, the supremacist nationalisms that undermine minorities in the United States—leading to a sense of patriotism rooted in two hundred years of nation building. November, and in some cases September and October (during Hispanic Heritage Month and the independence celebrations of many Latin American countries) are the only times when museums truly cater to us. All these conditions have obligated our communities to value physical labor over a possible career in academia. However, those patterns are quickly changing.

Social media has increased our access to scholarly role models. When black and Brown academics gain a PhD they are now celebrated in many blogs and pages dedicated to lifting up our communities. The second-generation model is breaking, and more and more first-generation students have role models in the form of successful Latinx scholars. From a personal perspective, my podcast, Latinos Who Lunch, receives weekly emails from listeners who are contemplating attending graduate school. Most of these messages hit on similar notes: financial difficulties, and uncertainty regarding whether a career in the humanities may have value in their lives and futures. This is a recurrent topic of many episodes of the podcast. I always answer with the same statement: in order to change the system and affect the canon, we need more Latinx scholars in positions of power. We need more Latinx professors teaching Latinx students.

We need to diversify our universities from the top down and not just find pride in campuses with diverse student bodies. The meaning of diversity in universities around the country has been distorted to signify only undergraduate classrooms with students of various cultural backgrounds. In order to diversify graduate programs in the humanities we must change the face and color of our faculty and administrative offices. And most importantly, as in Latin America, we need to highlight the importance of understanding the colonial period in all levels of education. In order to better comprehend the historical legacies of race relations throughout the Americas, Miguel Cabrera and casta paintings should be part of every high school curriculum. The challenges faced by all Native peoples after 1492, and the ways they resisted colonial oppression, should be taught at every level of public education. This is particularly important if we are actively seeking to challenge the narrative of Mexico as a nation, which normally only includes imperial structures that are pre-Hispanic. Furthermore, an understanding of the history of Afro-descendants and mixed-race groups and their significant contributions to the visual and material cultures of Latin America can potentially inspire similar students to continue studying those contributions. It is for this same reason that in all my colonial art courses I spend several weeks covering my own area of research: the culture of Native resistance in New Spain.

A careful analysis of the ways many Native groups were portrayed in painting and literature reveals the stereotypes that still affect us today. Most importantly, the exploitation of the figure of the cannibal, barbarian, and savage present in maps, martyr portraits, hagiographic literature, and casta paintings reflects a general anxiety on the part of colonial powers toward the tenacity of Indigenous communities against the threat of colonization. For instance, studying the so-called Pueblo Revolt of 1680 not as a rebellion of the Native pueblos of New Mexico but as the first US revolution could reshape our understanding of US history. Explaining the 1609 slave rebellion of Gaspar Yanga in Veracruz as one of the first revolutions on the continent contextualizes the history of Afro-descendants beyond their mere presence in casta paintings and Christian images of the Three Magi. It is for this reason that I make a point to contextualize the visual culture of the colonial period through contemporary examples.

Teaching the casta system in tension with 1980s soap operas and contemporary films allows students to see the fights for equality that have yet to be fought. The stereotypical renditions of American Native peoples first found in European maps of the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries can be placed in a global context by showing clips of the “cannibal genre” of horror films popular in Italy in the 1970s. Shortening the gap between the historical images presented in the classroom and the stagnant tropes of people of color in contemporary popular media reveals to students the value of studying the colonial period. Colonial visual culture is filled with these types of examples, which have the capacity to reshape our understanding of a period that tends to be romanticized, and as a consequence dismissed by many students seeking to learn more about the history of their people. To create new generations of Latinx students that value a career in colonial art history, and to dismantle the identity politics of empire, we need to change our general understanding of Latin American history, which in my opinion can start in a Spanish colonial art history class.

Emmanuel Ortega
University of Illinois at Chicago

1.

Every public elementary and secondary school in Mexico adheres to a national curriculum designed by the SEP. This includes books also created by this government agency.

2.

Ivette Sosa Salinas, “La SEP lanza propuesta para eliminar la historia de México de los planes de estudio; se debe ver el futuro sin detenerse en el pasado,” Diario Noticias Web, September 20, 2016, https://diarionoticiasweb.com/la-sep-lanza-propuesta-para-eliminar-la-historia-de-mexico-de-los-planes-de-estudio-se-debe-ver-el-futuro-sin-detenerse-en-el-pasado/.

3.

For more information regarding the nationalist visual culture of the nineteenth century and the adoption of Aztec art and culture into the project of the Mexican nation see Magali Marie Carrera, Traveling from New Spain to Mexico: Mapping Practices of Nineteenth-Century Mexico (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2011); Stacie G. Widdifield, The Embodiment of the National in Late Nineteenth-Century Mexican Painting (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1996); Raymond Hernández-Durán, The Academy of San Carlos and Mexican Art History: Politics, History, and Art in Nineteenth-Century Mexico (London and New York: Routledge, 2017).

(Video) BLANTON VIRTUAL LECTURE - Inventiveness and Invention in Spanish Colonial Art

© 2019 by The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved. Please direct all requests for permission to photocopy or reproduce article content through the University of California Press’s Reprints and Permissions web page, https://www.ucpress.edu/journals/reprints-permissions.

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(Video) Spanish Colonial Art

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FAQs

What are the arts of Spanish colonial period? ›

For the first centuries of Spanish colonization, painting was limited to religious icons. Portraits of saints and of the Holy Family became a familiar sight in churches. Other subject matters include the passion of Christ, the Via Crucis, the crucifixion, portrayal of heaven, purgatory and hell.

What artwork is made during Spanish colonial tradition? ›

Rituals and processions were the first visual aids. From the technologies used in crafting ritual paraphernalia developed the various visual art forms which characterized the Spanish colonial period: sculpture, painting, printmaking, furniture, fine metalwork, metal casting, textile arts, and fiesta decor.

What is the importance of Spanish Colonial art? ›

The collection of Spanish colonial art presents the artistic achievements of Latin America, from Columbus's first encounter with the people of the Caribbean through the region's independence movements and the subsequent formation of nation states.

What are the Philippine arts under the Spanish colonial period? ›

Spanish Colonial Art Period

They introduced formal paintings, sculpture and architecture influenced with Byzantine, Gothic, Baroque and Rococo art style. Most art are religious (catholic based). Spanish colonialism lived in the Filipinos' antique furniture and carving designs.

What is the history of Spanish colonial period? ›

The Spanish colonial period of the Philippines began when explorer Ferdinand Magellan came to the islands in 1521 and claimed it as a colony for the Spanish Empire. The period lasted until the Philippine Revolution in 1898.

What is Spanish art known for? ›

Spanish art is internationally renowned for being diverse, innnovative and exciting with many pieces embodying that timeless quality which leaves viewers awe-struck time and again.

How was art during Spanish era? ›

Spanish art was particularly influenced by France and Italy during the Baroque and Neoclassical periods, but Spanish art has often had very distinctive characteristics, partly explained by the Moorish heritage in Spain (especially in Andalusia), and through the political and cultural climate in Spain during the Counter ...

What is Spain's most famous art piece? ›

Let's start with the behemoth in the country – Guernica. If you see no other piece in Spain, you must see this. One of the most famous works of art in the world, this Picasso masterpiece was painted in response to the German bombing of the Basque town, Guernica, during the Spanish Civil War.

Who are the famous artists and their artworks during Spanish era? ›

In this era, Spain produced the best-known artists that have influenced modern art like El Greco, Diego Velazquez, Zurbaran, and Murillo. Besides, the modern era includes the most influential artists are Joan Miro, Pablo Picasso, and Salvador Dali.

What is the importance of Spanish colonial period in the Philippines? ›

Under Spanish rule, disparate barangays were deliberately consolidated into towns, where Catholic missionaries were more easily able to convert the inhabitants to Christianity. The missionaries converted most of the lowland inhabitants to Christianity. They also founded schools, a university, hospitals, and churches.

What was the greatest contribution of the Spanish colonial period? ›

One of Spain's greatest contributions to the development of the country was the one it least wanted—the unification of the people under its control. The Filipinos were united, first of all, through a common religion.

What are Spanish colonial characteristics? ›

Spanish colonial architecture features design elements like terra-cotta clay tile roofs, white stucco walls, soft arches, and carved wooden doors.

What art style did the Spanish bring to the Philippines? ›

Baroque architecture was brought to the Philippines archipelago by the Spanish, during the first years of the 16th century. This style developed there during the 17th century and most of the 18th century.

Who are the most famous Filipino artists during the Spanish colonial period? ›

Famous Filipino Artists of the Spanish Period
  • Felix Hidalgo. Felix Hidalgo was one of the few Filipino artists who had the opportunity to study abroad, other than Juan Luna. ...
  • Juan Luna. ...
  • Jose Honorato Lozano. ...
  • Esteban Villanueva. ...
  • Josef Luciano Dans.

What happened to the Philippine indigenous art during Spanish period? ›

Visual Arts

They replaced the arts that were once done in a communal spirit and community setting for rituals. The church, particularly the friars, became the new patron of the arts.

How did the Spanish colonial system work? ›

During the Spanish colonial period, the economy was based on exploitation, both of land and of Native American labor. The first Spanish settlers organized the encomienda system by which Spaniards were given title to American land and ownership of the villages on that land.

What did the Spanish empire invent? ›

Other useful everyday Spanish inventions include the first modern version of the stapler (Juan Solozabal and Juan Olive), the first mechanical pencil sharpener (Ignacio Urresti), the classical guitar, and packaged cigarettes, among many others. Spanish inventions also include items with a fun flare.

What were the 3 main goals of the Spanish colonies? ›

The first would be to convert natives to Christianity. The second would be to pacify the areas for colonial purposes. A third objective was to acculturate the natives to Spanish cultural norms so that they could move from mission status to parish status as full members of the congregation.

Who were the 3 greats of Spanish art? ›

Among the most famous are El Greco, Diego Velázquez, Francisco Goya, Salvador Dalí, and Pablo Picasso, one of the most prolific artists in history and a major figure in 20th-century art.

What are the art influence brought by the Spaniards? ›

The Spanish friars introduced Western painting in the Philippines to artisans who learned to copy on two-dimensional form from the religious icons that the friars brought from Spain,. For the first centuries of Spanish colonization, painting was limited to religious icons.

Who was the most famous Spanish artist? ›

Jump to the Modern century and you find Spain's best known artist, Pablo Picasso.

Who are the 4 famous artists mentioned that are from Spain? ›

4 of the Most Famous Spanish Artists and Their Artworks
  • El Greco (Doménikos Theotokópoulos) (1541–1614) ...
  • Juan Sánchez Cotán (1561–1627) ...
  • Diego Velázquez (1599–1660) ...
  • Francisco de Goya (1746–1828)
22 Nov 2019

Which painting is the icon of Spanish culture? ›

Guernica, a large black-and-white oil painting executed by Spanish artist Pablo Picasso in 1937 following the German bombing of Guernica, a city in Spain's Basque region.

What was the Golden Age of Spanish art? ›

In the 1500s, Spain had been enriched by treasure from the Americas, and the next century saw the Golden Age of Spanish painting. Most of the painters who made this such an outstanding period are represented.

What is the positive impact of Spanish colonization? ›

positive effects

The highly-developed(advanced technology) culture, new language(the Spanish), religion(Christianity) and institutions of Europe were introduced into Mexico. Spain opened up trade with other countries, and made profits.

How did the Spaniards influence the culture of the Filipinos? ›

By Christianizing the Filipinos, the Spanish Catholic missionaries were in effect remodelling Filipino culture and society according to the Hispanic standard. They would be Hispanizing the Filipinos, teaching them the trades, manners, customs, language and habits of the Spanish people.

Who established Spanish colonial rule in the Philippines? ›

Miguel López de Legazpi's (b. 1502–d. 1572) conquest of Manila in 1571 ushered in a 327-year epoch of Castilian rule in the Philippine Islands, but his actions also created unintended historical by-products that made the undertaking dissimilar to any other colony in the Spanish empire.

What was the main purpose of the Spanish colonial order? ›

Motivations for colonization: Spain's colonization goals were to extract gold and silver from the Americas, to stimulate the Spanish economy and make Spain a more powerful country. Spain also aimed to convert Native Americans to Christianity.

What is the impact of Spanish colonization to the culture? ›

Spanish conquest eventually wrought fundamental changes in the lives of the native population. The Spaniards introduced new customs and a new religion. They brought over new practices and institutions from their earlier colonial experiences in Latin America.

What are the major contributions of the Spaniards during the Spanish period in the development of science and technology in the Philippines? ›

The Spanish also contributed to the field of engineering in the islands by constructing government buildings, churches, roads, bridges and forts. Biology is given focus. Contributors to science in the archipelago during the 19th century were botanists, Fr. Ignacio Mercado., Dr.

What are the focus of the arts during Spanish colonization? ›

When the Spaniards arrived in the Philippines in 1521, the colonizers used art as a tool to propagate the Catholic faith through beautiful images. With communication as problem, the friars used images to explain the concepts behind Catholicism and to tell the stories of the Christ's life and passion.

When did the Spaniards introduced art painting in the Philippines? ›

Artistic painting was first introduced in the Philippines when the Spaniards arrived in the 16th century. From the 16th century to the 18th century artistic painting was used for religious propaganda the Catholicism. The paintings can be often seen in church walls.

What kind of art were developed in Spanish colonization Brainly? ›

Answer and Explanation:

The most prominent types of art during the Spanish colonization were religious art, since they were commissioned by the Catholic Church which was the most powerful political, spiritual, and cultural institution in the Spanish colonies.

Who is the greatest Filipino sculpture in Spanish era? ›

Filipino sculptors came to be known in the middle of the 19th century. Classical Philippine sculpture reached its peak in the works of Guillermo Tolentino (1890-1976). His best known masterpiece is the Bonifacio Monument, which is a group sculpture composed of numerous figures massed around a central obelisk.

What are the sculpture during Spanish period? ›

The “Conquering Virgin.” The most famous sculpture in Spanish colonial New Mexico was La Conquistadora, the Conquering Virgin, reputed to be the oldest image of the Virgin Mary in the United States.

What happened to Philippines during Spanish colonial? ›

What went on the Philippines was similar to what happened in Latin America. The Spanish seized land and established huge plantations which made rich men out of landowners. Some of the indigenous people mixed with the Spanish, some were overwhelmed by them. Both groups adopted Catholicism.

What are the changes during the Spanish period in the Philippines? ›

Among the most significant and enduring changes that occurred under Spanish rule was that the Filipino idea of communal use and ownership of land was replaced with the concept of private, individual ownership and the conferring of titles on members of the principalía.

What are the 3 major history period of the Philippine art? ›

The art of the Philippines had been influenced by almost all spheres of the globe. It had the taste of Renaissance, Baroque and Modern Periods through the colonizers who arrived in the country.

› what-are-the-phil... ›

Spanish Colonial Art Period Started when Philippines was colonized by Spaniards. They introduced formal paintings, sculpture and architecture influenced with By...
One well-known Filipino painter during the Spanish Colonial era was Juan Luna, the brother of the Philippine Army General, Antonio Luna. This is Juan Luna y Nov...
Printed from Grove Art Online. Grove is a registered trademark. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a single article for ...

What art style did the Spanish bring to the Philippines? ›

Baroque architecture was brought to the Philippines archipelago by the Spanish, during the first years of the 16th century. This style developed there during the 17th century and most of the 18th century.

What are the sculpture during Spanish period? ›

The “Conquering Virgin.” The most famous sculpture in Spanish colonial New Mexico was La Conquistadora, the Conquering Virgin, reputed to be the oldest image of the Virgin Mary in the United States.

What are the forms of literature in the Spanish colonial period? ›

These literary works are in the form oral, consisting of epics, legends, songs, riddles, and proverbs. These literary works are already present even before the Spaniards arrived. We have lots of legends, sayings and superstitious beliefs that we carry and still believed on it until now.

What are the 9 types of literature during pre Spanish period? ›

Pre-Spanish Poetry
  • Epics. Epics are long narrative poems in which a series of heroic achievements or events usually of a hero involving supernatural forces/phenomena. ...
  • Folksongs. ...
  • Epigrams. ...
  • Riddles. ...
  • Chants. ...
  • Sayings.
3 Jul 2016

What are the focus of the arts during Spanish colonization? ›

When the Spaniards arrived in the Philippines in 1521, the colonizers used art as a tool to propagate the Catholic faith through beautiful images. With communication as problem, the friars used images to explain the concepts behind Catholicism and to tell the stories of the Christ's life and passion.

What was Spanish art influenced by? ›

Spanish art was particularly influenced by France and Italy during the Baroque and Neoclassical periods, but Spanish art has often had very distinctive characteristics, partly explained by the Moorish heritage in Spain (especially in Andalusia), and through the political and cultural climate in Spain during the Counter ...

Who are the most famous Filipino artists during the Spanish colonial period? ›

Famous Filipino Artists of the Spanish Period
  • Felix Hidalgo. Felix Hidalgo was one of the few Filipino artists who had the opportunity to study abroad, other than Juan Luna. ...
  • Juan Luna. ...
  • Jose Honorato Lozano. ...
  • Esteban Villanueva. ...
  • Josef Luciano Dans.

What is Spain's most famous art piece? ›

Let's start with the behemoth in the country – Guernica. If you see no other piece in Spain, you must see this. One of the most famous works of art in the world, this Picasso masterpiece was painted in response to the German bombing of the Basque town, Guernica, during the Spanish Civil War.

Who are the famous artists and their artworks during Spanish era? ›

In this era, Spain produced the best-known artists that have influenced modern art like El Greco, Diego Velazquez, Zurbaran, and Murillo. Besides, the modern era includes the most influential artists are Joan Miro, Pablo Picasso, and Salvador Dali.

What was the golden age of Spanish art? ›

In the 1500s, Spain had been enriched by treasure from the Americas, and the next century saw the Golden Age of Spanish painting. Most of the painters who made this such an outstanding period are represented.

What is the contribution of the Spanish colonization in the Philippine literature? ›

Philippine literature was born in Spanish. There had been a rich literary tradition in the islands before the Spaniards arrived but it was the Spanish who started to publish those tales and stories. The works of Rizal, the best known Filipino writer and national hero, are a result of this inter-cultural process.

What is the greatest contribution of Spanish colonization in the Philippines? ›

One of Spain's greatest contributions to the development of the country was the one it least wanted—the unification of the people under its control. The Filipinos were united, first of all, through a common religion.

What was the first major work of Spanish literature? ›

The earliest surviving monument of Spanish literature, and one of its most distinctive masterpieces, is the Cantar de mío Cid (“Song of My Cid”; also called Poema de mío Cid), an epic poem of the mid-12th century (the existing manuscript is an imperfect copy of 1307).

What is the greatest period of Spanish literature called? ›

Golden Age, Spanish Siglo de Oro, the period of Spanish literature extending from the early 16th century to the late 17th century, generally considered the high point in Spain's literary history. The Golden Age began with the partial political unification of Spain about 1500.

What are the effects of Spanish colonization in the Philippines? ›

Spanish conquest eventually wrought fundamental changes in the lives of the native population. The Spaniards introduced new customs and a new religion. They brought over new practices and institutions from their earlier colonial experiences in Latin America.

Videos

1. Spanish Colonial Paintings - Docent Training with David Bomford
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(Art History 101)
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4. Full-Day Symposium for "Art and Empire: The Golden Age of Spain" Part 7 | Sofía Sanabrais
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